American Ethnic Geography


A Selected Bibliography of the
Ethnic and Cultural Geography of the
United States and Canada


| Atlases | American Indians | Midland Subculture | Lower Southern Subculture | New England Subculture |
| Mormons | African Americans | Ethnic and Racial Mixtures | Hispanic Americans | German Americans |
| German Anabaptist Groups | Dutch Americans | Scandinavian Americans | Finnish Americans |
| Canadian French | Louisiana/Mississippi Valley French | Irish and Scotch-Irish Americans |
| Slavic Americans | Italian Americans | Jewish Americans | Asian Americans |
| Comparative and Cross-Cultural Studies | Settlement Morphology | Religion | Language |
| Agriculture | Folk Architecture | Politics | Music | Culture Regions and Boundaries |


OLD-STOCK EURO-AMERICANS: THE LOWER SOUTHERN SUBCULTURE

Earle, Carville V. The Evolution of a Tidewater Settlement System. Chicago: , 1975.

Farmer, Charles J. In the Absence of Towns: Settlement and Country Trade in Southside Virginia, 1730-1800. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

Fischer, David H. "The South of England to Virginia: Distressed Cavaliers and Indentured Servants." Chap. in Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, 207-418. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Hilliard, Sam B. Hog Meat and Hoe Cake: Food Supply in the Old South. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1972.

________. "Pork in the Ante-Bellum South." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 59 (1969): 461-480.

Jordan, Terry G. "The Imprint of the Upper and Lower South on Mid-Nineteenth Century Texas." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 57 (1967): 667-690.

________. "The Traditional Southern Rural Chapel in Texas." Ecumene 8 (1976): 6-17.

________. Trails to Texas: Southern Roots of Western Cattle Ranching. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981.

Kniffen, Fred B. "Folk Housing: Key to Diffusion." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 55 (1965): 549-577.

________. "Louisiana House Types." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 26 (1936): 179-183.

Kurath, Hans. A Word Geography of the Eastern United States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1949.

Lynch, . "The Westward Flow of Southern Colonists." Journal of American History 9 (1943): 303-327.

Mitchell, Robert D. "American Origins and Regional Institutions: The 17th-Century Chesapeake." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 73 (1983): 404-420.

Oszuscik, Philippe. "The Carolina Heritage in Mobile and Southwest Alabama." Pioneer America Society Transactions 9 (1986): 63-70.

Owsley, Frank. "The Pattern of Migration and Settlement on the Southern Frontier." Journal of Southern History 11 (1945): 147-176.

Prunty, Merle. "The Renaissance of the Southern Plantation." Geographical Review 45 (1955): 459-491.

Radford, John P. "Race, Residence, and Ideology: Charleston, South Carolina in the Mid-19th Century." Journal of Historical Geography 2 (1976): 329-346.




OLD-STOCK EURO-AMERICANS: THE NEW ENGLAND SUBCULTURE

Bastian, Robert W. "Generic Place-Names and the Northern-Midland Dialect Boundary in the Midwest." Names 25 (1977): 228-236.

Bobersky, Alexander T. and Stephens, David T. "Cultural Faultline? An Examination of the Settlement Patterns along the Boundary of the Western Reserve." Pioneer America Society Transactions 11 (1988): 87-95.

Carver, Craig M. American Regional Dialects: A Word Geography. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1987.

Cronon, William. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists and the Ecology of New England. New York: Hill & Wang, 1983.

Davis, D. H. "Amana: A Study of Occupance." Economic Geography 12 (1936): 217-230.

Dodge, Stanley D. "The Frontier of New England in the 17th and 18th Centuries and Its Significance in American History." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts, and Letters 28 (1942): 435-439.

Fischer, David H. "East Anglia to Massachusetts: The Exodus of the English Puritans." Chap. in Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, 13-205. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Garrison, J. Ritchie. Landscape and Material Life in Franklin County, Massachusetts. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991.

Holbrook, Stewart H. The Yankee Exodus: An Account of Migration from New England. New York: Macmillan, 1950.

Hopple, L. C. "A Religious and Geographical History of the Shakers." Pennsylvania Folklife 39 (1989-90): 57-72.

Hudson, John. "Cultural Geography and the Upper Great Lakes Region." Journal of Cultural Geography 5 (1984): 19-32.

________. Plains County Towns. Minneapolis: , 1985.

________. "Yankeeland in the Middle West." Journal of Geography 85 (1986): 195-200.

James, Preston. "The Blackstone Valley." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 19 (1929): 67-109.

Kniffen, Fred B. "The American Agricultural Fair: The Pattern." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 39 (1949): 264-282.

________. "The American Agricultural Fair: Time and Place." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 41 (1951): 42-57.

________. "The American Covered Bridge." Geographical Review 41 (1951): 114-123.

________. "Folk Housing: Key to Diffusion." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 55 (1965): 549-577.

Leighly, John. "Town Names of Colonial New England in the West." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68 (1978): 233-248.

Lewis, Pierce. "The Cottage as a Dominant Folk House in Connecticut." Proceedings, New England-St. Lawrence Valley Geographical Society 10 (1980): 23-27.

Malmstrom, Vincent H. "When Vermont Went West." Vermont Geographer 2 (1975): 1-6.

Mathews, Lois K. The Expansion of New England. Boston: , 1909.

McManis, Douglas R. Colonial New England: A Historical Geography. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.

Nostrand, Richard. "The Colonial New England Town." Journal of Geography 72 (1973): 45-53.

Perkins, Martin. "Cobblestone Architecture: A Southeastern Wisconsin Extension of Western New York's Masonry Building Tradition." Pioneer America Society Transactions 10 (1987): 1-8.

Peters, . "Changing Ideas about the Use of Vegetation as an Indicator of Soil Quality: Example of New York and Michigan." Journal of Geography 72 (1973): 18-28.

Powell, Sumner C. Puritan Village: The Formation of a New England Town. Middletown, CT: 1963.

Raup, H. F. "The Names of Ohio's Streams." Names 5 (1957): 162-168.

Rose, Gregory S. "The County Origins of Southern Michigan's Settlers, 1800-1850." East Lakes Geographer 22 (1987): 74-87.

________. "South Central Michigan Yankees." Michigan History 70, no. 2 (1986): 32-39.

Rosenberry, L. M. The Expansion of New England: The Spread of New England Settlement and Institutions to the Mississippi River, 1620-1865. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1909.

Schlereth, Thomas J. "The New England Presence in the Midwest Landscape." Old Northwest 9, no. 2 (1983): 125-142.

Scofield, E. "The Origin of Settlement Patterns in Rural New England." Geographical Review 28 (1938): 652-663.

Stephens, David T.; Bobersky, Alexander T.; and Cencia, Joseph. "The Yankee Frontier in Northern Ohio, 1796-1850." Pioneer America Society Transactions 17 (1994): 1-10.

Widdis, Randy W. "With Scarcely a Ripple: English Canadians in Northern New York State at the Beginning of the 20th Century." Journal of Historical Geography 13 (1987): 169-192.

Wilhelm, Hubert G.H. "New England in Southeastern Ohio." Pioneer America Society Transactions 2 (1979): 13-30.

Wood, Joseph S. "'Build, Therefore, Your Own World': The New England Village as Settlement Ideal." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 81 (1991): 32-50.

________. "Elaboration of a Settlement System: The New England Village in the Federal Period." Journal of Historical Geography 10 (1984): 331-356.

________. "The Three Faces of the New England Village." North American Culture 3, no. 1 (1987): 3-14.

________. "Village and Community in Early Colonial New England." Journal of Historical Geography 8 (1982): 333-346.

Zelinsky, Wilbur. "Classical Town Names in the United States." Geographical Review 57 (1967): 463-495.

________. "Generic Terms in the Place Names of the Northeastern United States." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 45 (1955): 319-349.

________. "The New England Connecting Barn." Geographical Review 48 (1958): 540-553.




MORMONS

Arrington, Leonard J. Great Basin Kingdom: An Economic History of the Latter-day Saints, 1830-1900. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958.

Banks, C. S. "The Mormon Immigration into Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 49 (1945-1946): 233-244.

Bennion, Lowell C. "Meinig's 'Mormon Culture Region' Revisited." Historical Geography 24, nos. 1 & 2 (1995): 22-33.

Bowen, Marshall E. "Migration to and from a Northern Wyoming Mormon Community, 1900- 1925." Pioneer America 9, no. 2 (1977): 208-227.

________. "On the Outer Rim of Zion: Mormon Occupance of Burlington Flat, Wyoming." Philippine Geographical Journal 16, no. 2 (1972): 55-66.

________. "Perception and Mormon Pioneering in the Big Horn Basin: Cowley Flat, Wyoming." Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Geographical Journal 1 (1972): 14-18.

Brightman, G. F. "The Boundaries of Utah." Economic Geography 16 (1940): 87-95.

Budge, Seth. "Perception of the Boundaries of the Mormon Cultural Region." Great Plains- Rocky Mountain Geographical Journal 3 (1974): 1-9.

Flanders, Robert B. Nauvoo: Kingdom on the Mississippi. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1965.

Francaviglia, Richard V. "Mormon Central-Hall Houses in the American West." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 61 (1971): 65-71.

________. "The Mormon Landscape: Definition of an Image in the American West." Proceedings of the Association of American Geographers 2 (1970): 59-61.

________. The Mormon Landscape: Existence, Creation, and Perception of a Unique Image in the American West. New York: AMS Press, 1978.

________. "The Passing of the Mormon Village." Landscape 22 (Spring 1978): 40-47.

Handley, Lawrence R. "The Mormon State of Deseret: A Study in Political Geography." Geographical Bulletin 10 (1975): 2-12.

Jackson, Richard H. "The Mormon Experience: the Plains as Sinai, the Great Salt Lake as the Dead Sea, and the Great Basin as Desert-cum-promised Land." Journal of Historical Geography 18 (1992): 41-58.

________. "Mormon Perception and Settlement." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68 (1978): 317-334.

________. "Myth and Reality: Environmental Perception of the Mormon Pioneers." Rocky Mountain Social Science Journal 9 (1972): .

________. "Religion and Landscape in the Mormon Culture Region." In Dimensions in Human Geography, ed. Karl W. Butzer, 100-127. Chicago: University of Chicago Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 186, 1978.

________. "The Use of Adobe in the Mormon Culture Region." Journal of Cultural Geography 1 (Fall/Winter 1980): .

Jackson, Richard H. and Hudman, Lloyd. "Border towns, Gambling and The Mormon Culture Region." Journal of Cultural Geography 8 (1987): 35-48.

Jackson, Richard H. and Layton, Robert L. "The Mormon Village: Analysis of a Settlement Type." Professional Geographer 28 (1976): 136-141.

Jackson, Richard H., ed. The Mormon Role in the Settlement of the West. Provo: Brigham Young University Press, 1978.

Katz, Y. and Lehr, J.C. "Jewish and Mormon Agricultural Settlement in Western Canada." Canadian Geographer 35 (1991): 128-142.

Kay, Jeanne and Brown, Craig J. "Mormon Beliefs about Land and Natural Resources, 1847-1877." Journal of Historical Geography 11 (1985): 253-267.

Lee, Lawrence B. "The Mormons Come to Canada, 1887-1902." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 59 (1968): 11-22.

Lehr, John C. "Mormon Settlement Morphology in Southern Alberta." Alberta Geographer 8 (1972): 6-13.

________. "The Mormon Cultural Landscape in Alberta." In Malaspina Papers: Studies in Human and Physical Geography, B.C. Geographical Series, no. 17, ed. Robert Leigh, 25-33. Vancouver: Tantalus Research, 1973.

________. "The Sequence of Mormon Settlement in Southern Alberta." Alberta Geographer 10 (1974): 20-29.

Meinig, Donald W. "The Mormon Culture Region: Strategies and Patterns in the Geography of the American West, 1847-1964." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 55 (1965): 191-220.

Nelson, Lowry. The Mormon Village: A Pattern and Technique of Land Settlement. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1952.

________. "The Mormon Village: A Study in Social Origins." Proceedings of the Utah Academy of Science 7 (1930): 11-37.

Peterson, Charles S. "A Mormon Town: One Man's West." Journal of Mormon History 3 (1976): 3-12.

________. Take Up Your Mission: Mormon Colonizing along the Little Colorado, 1870-1900. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1973.

________. "Utah's Regions, A View from the Hinterland." Utah Historical Quarterly 47 (1979): 103-109.

Rice, Cindy. "Spring City: A Look at a Nineteenth Century Mormon Village." Utah Historical Quarterly 43 (1975): 261-277.

Rosenvall, L. A. "Interstate Boundaries and Settlement Patterns: The Example of Utah." B.C. Geographical Studies 17 (1973): 35-53.

________. "Mormon Settlement Plats: Their Design and Origin." Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Geographical Journal 1 (1972): 88-93.

________. "The Transfer of Mormon Culture to Alberta." American Review of Canadian Studies 12, no. 2 (Summer 1982): 51-63.

Seeman, A. L. "Communities in the Salt Lake Basin." Economic Geography 14 (1938): 300-308.

Spencer, Joseph E. "The Development of Agricultural Villages in Southern Utah." Agricultural History 14 (1940): 181-189.

________. "House Types of Southern Utah." Geographical Review 35 (1945): 444-457.

Stegner, Wallace E. Mormon Country. New York: Duel, Sloan, and Pearce, 1942.




AFRICAN AMERICANS

Aiken, Charles S. "A New Type of Black Ghetto in the Plantation South." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 80 (1990): 223-246.

________. "New Settlement Pattern of Rural Blacks in the American South." Geographical Review 75 (1985): 383-404.

Birdsall, Stephen. "An Introduction to Research on Black America: Prospects and Preview." Southeastern Geographer 11 (1971): 85-89.

Calef, W. C. and Nelson, H. J. "Distribution of Negro Population in the United States." Geographical Review 45 (1955): 82-97.

Campbell, R. R.; Johnson, D. M.; and Strangler, G. J. "Return Migration of Black People to the South." Rural Sociology 39 (1974): 514-528.

Carney, George O. "The Shotgun House in Oklahoma." Journal of Cultural Geography 4 (1983): 57-61.

Cromartie, John and Stack, Carol B. "Reinterpretation of Black Return and Nonreturn Migration to the South, 1975-1980." Geographical Review 79 (1979): 297-310.

Davis, G. A. and Donaldson, O. F. Blacks in the United States: A Geographic Perspective. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1975.

Donaldson, Fred. "The Geography of Black America: Three Approaches." Journal of Geography 71 (1972): 414-420.

Ernst, R. T. and Hugg, L., eds. Black America: Geographical Perspective. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 1976.

Fisher, James S. "Negro Farm Ownership in the South." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 63 (1973): 478-489.

Gottlieb, P. Making Their Own Way: Southern Blacks' Migration to Pittsburgh, 1916-30. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Grossman, James R. Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Groves, P. and Muller, E.K. "The Evolution of Black Residential Areas in the Late Nineteenth Century." Journal of Historical Geography 1 (1975): 169-192.

Harrison, Alferdteen, ed. Black Exodus: The Great Migration from the American South. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1991.

Hart, J. F. "The Changing Distribution of the American Negro." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 50 (1960): 242-266.

Holloway, Joseph E., ed. Africanisms in American Culture. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.

Hunter, John M. "Geophagy in Africa and the United States." Geographical Review 63 (1973): 170-195.

Johnson, D. M. and Campbell, R. R. Black Migration in America: A Social Demographic History. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1981.

Johnson, James H., Jr. "A Note on Black Migration to the South." Geographical Perspectives 49 (1982): 38-43.

Lewis, G. M. "The Distribution of the Negro in the Conterminous United States." Geography 54 (1969): 410-418.

Lewis, Peirce F. "Impact of Negro Migration on the Electoral Geography of Flint, Michigan, 1932-1962: A Cartographic Analysis." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 55 (1965): 1-25.

Ley, David. The Black Inner City as Frontier Outpost, AAG Monograph Series, No. 7. Washington, DC: Association of American Geographers, 1974.

Long, L. H. and Hansen, K. "Selectivity of Black Return Migration to the South." Rural Sociology 42 (1977): 317-331.

McHugh, Kevin. "Black Migration Reversal in the United States." Geographical Review 77 (1987): 171-182.

McKee, Jesse O. "A Geographical Analysis of the Origin, Diffusion, and Spatial Distribution of the Black American in the United States." Southern Quarterly 12 (1974): 203-216.

Morrill, R. L. "The Negro Ghetto: Problems and Alternatives." Geographical Review 55 (1965): 339-361.

Morrill, R. L. and Donaldson, O.F. "Geographical Perspectives on the History of Black America." Economic Geography 48 (1972): 1-23.

Oszuscik, Philippe. "African-Americans in the American South." In To Build in a New Land: Ethnic Landscapes in North America, ed. Allen G. Noble, 157-176. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Phillips, Ulrich B. "The Origin and Growth of the Southern Black Belts." American Historical Review 11 (1906): 798-816.

Radford, John P. "Black in Boston." Journal of Interdisciplinary History 12 (1982): 677-684.

Rogers, . "Race and Geographic Differentials in Mississippi Housing Characteristics." Mississippi Geographer 6 (1978): 19-31.

Rose, Harold M. "The All-Negro Town: Its Evolution and Function." Geographical Review 55 (1965): 362-381.

________. "The Evolving Spatial Pattern of Black America: 1910-1980." In Ethnicity in Contemporary America: A Geographical Perspective, ed. Jesse O. McKee, 55-75. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1985.

________. "The Origins and Patterns of Development of Urban Black Social Areas." Journal of Geography 68 (1969): 326-332.

Smith, Peter C., and Raitz, Karl B. "Negro Hamlets and Agricultural Estates in Kentucky's Inner Bluegrass." Geographical Review 64 (1974): 217-234.

Tatum, Charles E. and Sommers, Lawrence M. "The Spread of the Black Christian Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, 1870-1970." Journal of Geography 74 (1975): 343-357.

Vermeer, D. E. and Frate, D. A. "Geophagy in a Mississippi County." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 65 (1975): 414-424.

Vlach, John. "The Shotgun House: An African Architecural Legacy." Pioneer America 8 (1976): 47-56, 57-70.

Wheeler, Jesse O. "The Spatial Interaction of Blacks in Metropolitan Areas." Southeastern Geographer 11 (1971): 101-112.

Wheeler, Jesse O. and Brunn, S. D. "An Agricultural Ghetto: Negroes in Cass County, Michigan." Geographical Review 59 (1969): 317-329.

________. "Negro Migration into Rural Southwestern Michigan." Geographical Review 65 (1975): 73-92.

Woodruff, . "Some Characteristics of the Alabama Slave Population in 1850." Geographical Review 52 (1962): 379-388.

Zelinsky, Wilbur. "The Population Geography of the Free Negro in Ante-Bellum America." Population Studies 3 (1950): 386-401.

for additional sources, see the following:

Carlson, Alvar. "A Bibliography of the Geographical Literature on the American Negro, 1920-1971." Virginia Geographer 7, no. 1 (Spring-Summer, 1972): 12-19.



| Atlases | American Indians | Midland Subculture | Lower Southern Subculture | New England Subculture |
| Mormons | African Americans | Ethnic and Racial Mixtures | Hispanic Americans | German Americans |
| German Anabaptist Groups | Dutch Americans | Scandinavian Americans | Finnish Americans |
| Canadian French | Louisiana/Mississippi Valley French | Irish and Scotch-Irish Americans |
| Slavic Americans | Italian Americans | Jewish Americans | Asian Americans |
| Comparative and Cross-Cultural Studies | Settlement Morphology | Religion | Language |
| Agriculture | Folk Architecture | Politics | Music | Culture Regions and Boundaries |

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Created by JTK. Last revised January 5, 1998.