American Ethnic Geography


A Selected Bibliography of the
Ethnic and Cultural Geography of the
United States and Canada


| Atlases | American Indians | Midland Subculture | Lower Southern Subculture | New England Subculture |
| Mormons | African Americans | Ethnic and Racial Mixtures | Hispanic Americans | German Americans |
| German Anabaptist Groups | Dutch Americans | Scandinavian Americans | Finnish Americans |
| Canadian French | Louisiana/Mississippi Valley French | Irish and Scotch-Irish Americans |
| Slavic Americans | Italian Americans | Jewish Americans | Asian Americans |
| Comparative and Cross-Cultural Studies | Settlement Morphology | Religion | Language |
| Agriculture | Folk Architecture | Politics | Music | Culture Regions and Boundaries |


DUTCH AMERICANS

Bjorklund, Elaine M. "Ideology and Culture Exemplified in Southwestern Michigan." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 54 (1964): 227-241.

Bossa, Wayne E. "Dutch Immigration and Migration: The Establishment of Dutch Communities in Southwestern Michigan." Proceedings of the New England-St. Lawrence Valley Division, Association of American Geographers 6 (1976): 46-48.

DeLong, G. F. The Dutch in America, 1609-1974. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1975.

Fitchen, John. The New World Dutch Barn. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1968.

Jakle, John A. and Wheeler, James O. "The Changing Residential Structure of the Dutch Population in Kalamazoo, Michigan." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 59 (1969): 441-460.

Leiby, Adrian C. The Early Dutch and Swedish Settlers of New Jersey. Princeton, NJ: , 1964.

Larson, . "New York's Dutch Barns: A Functional Perspective." Pioneer America Society Transactions 10 (1987): 37-41.

Lucas, Henry S. "The Beginnings of Dutch Immigration to Western Michigan, 1846." Michigan Historical Magazine 6 (1922): 642-674.

________. Netherlanders in America. Ann Arbor: , 1955.

McHenry Stewart G. "The Colonial Dutch Landscape Legacy in Vermont." Proceedings of the New England-St. Lawrence Valley Division, Association of American Geographers 7 (1977): 37-44.

Sas, A. "Dutch Concentrations in Rural Southwestern Ontario." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 48 (1958): 185-194.

Schreuder, Yda. Dutch Catholic Immigrant Settlement in Wisconsin. New York: Garland, 1990.

________. "Dutch Catholic Emigration in the Mid-19th Century." Journal of Historical Geography 11 (1985): 48-69.

Swierenga, Robert P., ed. The Dutch in America: Immigration, Settlement, and Cultural Change. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1985.

Wacker, Peter. "Dutch Barns and Barracks in New Jersey." Pioneer America 5, no. 2 (1973): 37-47.

________. "The Dutch Culture Area in the Northeast, 1609-1620." New Jersey History 104 (1986): 1-21.

________. "Dutch Material Culture in New Jersey." Journal of Popular Culture 11 (1978): 948-958.

Winsberg, Morton D. "Patterns of Dutch Settlement in the U.S. between 1845 and 1980." Dutch International Society Magazine 16, no. 4 (1986): 18-20.




SCANDINAVIAN AMERICANS

Bjork, K.O. "Scandinavian Migration to the Canadian Prairie Provinces, 1893-1914." North American Studies 26 (1974): 3-30.

Smith, Guy-Harold. "Notes on the Distribution of Foreign-Born Scandinavian in Wisconsin." Wisconsin Magazine of History 14 (1930-31): 419-436.

Wonders, William C. "Mot Kanadas Nordvast: Pioneer Settlement by Scandinavians in Central Alberta." Geografiska Annaler 65B (1983): 129-152.

________. "Scandinavian Homesteaders." Alberta History 24, no. 3 (1976): 1-4.

Wood, J. David. "Scandinavian Settlers in Canada Revisited." Geografiska Annaler 49B (1967): 1-9.

Swedish-Americans

Ostergren, Robert C. A Community Transplanted: The Trans-Atlantic Experience of a Swedish Immigrant Settlement in the Upper Midwest, 1835-1915. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988.

________. "A Community Transplanted: The Formation Experience of a Swedish Immigrant Community in the Upper Middle West." Journal of Historical Geography 5 (1979): 189-212.

________. "Swedish Migration to North America in Transatlantic Perspective." In Migration Across Time and Nations, eds. Ira Glazier and Luigi de Rosa, 125-147. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1986.

Rice, John G. "The Role of Culture and Community in Frontier Prairie Farming." Journal of Historical Geography 3 (1977): 155-175.

Norwegian-Americans

Breisch, and Moore, . "Norwegian Rock Houses of Bosque County, Texas." In Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture II, ed. Camille Wells, 64-71. Columbia, MO: , 1986.

Fapso, Richard J. Norwegians in Wisconsin. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1977.

Gjerde, J. From Peasants to Farmers: The Migration from Balestrand, Norway to the Upper Middle West. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Kaups, Matti E. "Norwegian Immigrants and the Development of Commercial Fisheries along the North Shore of Lake Superior, 1870-1895." In Norwegian Influence on the Upper Midwest, ed. Harald Naess, 21-34. Duluth: University of Minnesota-Duluth, 1976.

Legreid, Anne and Ward, David. "Religious Schism and the Development of Rural Immigrant Communities: Norwegian Lutherans in Western Wisconsin, 1880-1905." Upper Midwest History 2 (1982): 13-29.

Qualey, Carlton C. Norwegian Settlement in the United States. Northfield, MN: Norwegian- American Historical Association, 1938.

Raitz, Karl and Mather, Cotton. "Norwegians and Tobacco in Western Wisconsin." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 61 (1971): 684-696.

Tishler, William H. "Norwegians in Wisconsin." In To Build in a New Land: Ethnic Landscapes in North America, ed. Allen G. Noble, 226-241. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Danish-Americans

Hale, Frederick, ed. Danes in North America. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1984.

Mackintosh, Jette. "Ethnic Patterns in Danish Immigrant Agriculture: A Study of Audobon and Shelby Counties, Iowa." Agricultural History 64 (1990): 59-77.

________. "'Little Denmark' on the Prairie: A Study of the Towns of Elkhorn and Kimballton in Iowa." Journal of American Ethnic History 7, no. 2 (Spring, 1988): 46-68.

________. "Migration and Mobility among Danish Settlers in Southwest Iowa." Journal of Historical Geography 17 (1991): 165-189.

Nielsen Betsinger, Signe T. "Danes in Iowa and Minnesota." In To Build in a New Land: Ethnic Landscapes in North America, ed. Allen G. Noble, 211-225. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Icelandic-Americans

Lindal, W. J. The Icelanders in Canada. Ottawa: Viking Printers, 1967.

Richtik, James M. "Chain Migration among Icelandic Settlers in Canada to 1891." Scandinavian-Canadian Studies 2 (1986): 73-88.

Vanderhill, Burke G. and Christensen, David E. "The Settlement of New Iceland." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 53 (1963): 350-363.

Sommerville, S. J. "Icelanders in Manitoba." Canadian Geographical Journal 21, no. 4 (October 1940): 193-201.




FINNISH AMERICANS

Colonial Period

Dunlap, A. R. and Moyne, E. J. "The Finnish Language on the Delaware." American Speech 27 (1952): 81-90.

Jordan, Terry G. "Evolution of American Backwoods Pioneer Culture: The Role of the Delaware Finns." In Mississippi's Piney Woods, ed. Noel Polk, 25-39. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 1985.

________. "New Sweden's Role on the American Frontier." Geografiska Annaler 71B (1989): 71-83.

Jordan, Terry G. and Kaups, Matti. The American Backwoods Frontier: An Ethnic and Ecological Interpretation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Kaups, Matti and Jordan, Terry G. "Finns and the Cultural Legacy of the New Sweden Colony." Scandinavian Review 75, no. 4 (1987): 117-123.

Wuorinen, John H. The Finns on the Delaware, 1638-1655. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.

19th Century U.S.

Alanen, Arnold R. "Back to the Land! Rural Finnish Settlement in Wisconsin." Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts, and Letters 65 (1977): 180-203.

________. "In Search of the Pioneer Finnish Homesteader in America." Finnish Americana 4 (1981): 72-92.

Alanen, Arnold R. and Tishler, William H. "Finnish Farmstead Organization in Old and New World Settings." Journal of Cultural Geography 1, no. 1 (1980): 66-81.

Borchert, John R. "A Quarter-Century of Change in the Finland Community of Northeastern Minnesota." Publication of the Social Sciences Research Trust Fund at the University of Minnesota Duluth, 1960.

Davis, Darrell H. "The Finland Community, Minnesota." Geographical Review 25 (1935): 282-294.

Hoglund, A. William. Finnish Immigrants in America, 1880-1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1960.

________. "Flight from Industry: Finns and Farming in America." Finnish Americana 1 (1978): 1-21.

Jalkanen, Ralph J., ed. The Finns in North America: A Social Symposium. Hancock, MI: Michigan State University Press for Suomi College, 1969.

________. The Faith of the Finns: Historical Perspectives on the Finnish Lutheran Church in America. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1972.

Karni, Michael G., ed. Finnish Diaspora II: United States. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1981.

Karni, Michael G.; Kaups, Matti E.; and Ollila, Jr., Douglas J., eds. The Finnish Experience in the Western Great Lakes Region: New Perspectives. Turku, Finland: Institute for Migration, 1975.

Karni, Michael G.; Koivukangas, Olavi; and Laine, Edward W., eds. Finns in North America. Turku, Finland: Institute of Migration, 1988.

Kaups, Matti. "A Finnish Riihi in Minnesota." Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science 38 (1972): 66-71.

________. "A Finnish Savusauna in Minnesota." Minnesota History 45 (1976): 11-20.

________. "Cultural Landscape: Log Structures as Symbols of Ethnic Identity." Material Culture 27, no. 2 (Summer, 1995): 1-19.

________. "Finnish Log Houses in the Upper Middle West." Journal of Cultural Geography 3, no. 2 (1983): 2-26.

________. "Finnish Meadow-Hay Barns in the Lake Superior Region." Journal of Cultural Geography 10 (1989): 1-18.

________. "Finnish Place Names as a Form of Ethnic Expression in the Middle West, 1880-1977." Finnish Americana 1 (1978): 51-70 and 2 (1979): 28-49.

________. "Finnish Place-Names in Michigan." Michigan History 51 (1967): 335-347.

________. "Finnish Place Names in Minnesota: A Study in Cultural Transfer." Geographical Review 56 (1966): 377-397.

________. "Finns in the Lake Superior Region." In To Build in a New Land: Ethnic Landscapes in North America, ed. Allen G. Noble, 242-267. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

________. "Log Architecture in America: European Antecedents in a Finnish Context." Journal of Cultural Geography 2, no. 1 (1983): 131-153.

________. "Patterns of Finnish Settlement in the Lake Superior Region." Michigan Academician 3, no. 3 (1971): 77-91.

Kaups, Matti and Mather, Cotton. "Eben: 30 Years Later in a Finnish Community in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan." Economic Geography 44 (1968): 57-70.

Kilpinen, Jon T. "Finnish Cultural Landscapes in the Pacific Northwest." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 86, no. 1 (Winter 1994/95): 25-34.

Knipping, Mark. Finns in Wisconsin. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1977.

Kolehmainen, John I. A History of the Finns in Ohio, Western Pennsylvania, and West Virginia: From Lake Erie's Shores to the Mahoning and Monongahela Valleys. Painesville, OH: Ohio Finnish-American Historical Society, 1977.

________. "The Finnish Pioneers of Minnesota." Minnesota History 25 (1944): 317-328.

________. "The Finns of Wisconsin." Wisconsin Magazine of History 27 (1944): 391-399.

Kolehmainen, John I. and Hill, George W. Haven in the Woods: The Story of the Finns in Wisconsin. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1951.

Koskela, Alice. "Finnish Log Homestead Buildings in Long Valley." In Idaho Folklife, ed. Louie B. Attebery, 29-36. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press; Boise: Idaho State Historical Society, 1985.

Mather, Cotton and Kaups, Matti. "The Finnish Sauna: A Cultural Index to Settlement." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 53 (1963): 494-504.

Mead, W. R. "A Finnish Settlement in Central Minnesota." Acta Geographica (Helsinki) 13, no. 3 (1954): 1-16.

Noble, Allen. "The Finnish Landscape of the Upper Great Lakes." East Lakes Geographer 18 (1983): 14-24.

Rikkinen, Kalevi. "Kalevala, Minnesota: Agricultural Geography in Transition." Acta Geographica (Helsinki) 19, no. 5 (1969): 1-53.

Russell, Horace E. "The Finnish Farmers in America." Agricultural History 11 (1937): 65-79.

Thaden, J. F. "Finnish Farmers in Michigan." Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station Quarterly Bulletin 28, no. 2 (1945): 90-96.

Van Cleef, Eugene. "The Finn in America." Geographical Review 6 (1918): 185-214.

________. "The Finns of the Pacific Coast of the United States, and Consideration of the Problem of Scientific Land Settlement." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 30 (1940): 25-38.

________. "The Finns on Cape Cod." New England Quarterly 6 (1933): 597-601.

Yli-Jokipii, Pentti. "The Cultural Geography of Kaleva, A Finnish Immigrant Community in Michigan." Acta Geographica (Helsinki) 22 (1971): 1-24.

Wargelin, John. "The Finns in Michigan." Michigan History Magazine 24 (1940): 179-203.

Wilson, Leonard S. "Eben: A Finnish Community in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan." Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters 19 (1934): 367-375.

19th Century Canada

Johnson, Gilbert. "The New Finland Colony." Saskatchewan History 15 (1962): 69-72.

Karni, Michael G., ed. Finnish Diaspora I: Canada, South America, Africa, Australia and Sweden. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1981.

Krats, Peter V. "'Suomalaiset Nikkelialuella': Finns in the Sudbury Area, 1883-1939." Polyphony 5, no. 1 (1983): 37-48.

Lindstrom-Best, Varpu. The Finns in Canada. Canada's Ethnic Groups, Booklet No. 8. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1985.

________. The Finnish Immigrant Community of Toronto, 1887-1913. Toronto: Multicultural History Society of Ontario, 1979.

Lindstrom-Best, Varpu, ed. "Finns in Ontario." Special issue of Polyphony 3, no. 2 (1981): 1-120.

Rasmussen, Mark. "Finnish Settlement in Rural Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada." Siirtolaisuus/Migration 9, no. 4 (1982): 3-15.

Saarinen, Oiva W. "Finns in Northeastern Ontario with Special Reference to the Sudbury Area." Laurentian University Review 15 (1982): 41-54.

________. "The Pattern and Impact of Finnish Settlement in Canada." Terra (Helsinki) 79 (1967): 113-120.

Schelstraete, Nancy Mattson. Life in the New Finland Woods: A History of New Finland, Saskatchewan. Rocanville, Saskatchewan: New Finland Historical and Heritage Society, 1982.

Tapper, G. O. and Saarinen, O. W. "Finnish-Canadian Migration and Cultural Patterns: A Northern Ontario Case Study." Nordia 20, no. 1 (1986): 83-93.

Van Cleef, Eugene. "Finnish Settlement in Canada." Geographical Review 42 (1952): 253-266.

Virtaranta, Pertti. "Uusi Suomi-New Finland." Finnish Americana 6 (1983-1984): 34-39.

Wilson, J. Donald. "Cultural Adaptation, Change, and Continuity Among Thunder Bay Finns." Siirtolaisuus/Migration 4 (1977): 12-26.

________. "Ethnicity and Cultural Retention: Finns in Canada, 1890-1920." Review Journal of Philosophy and Social Science 1, no. 2 (1977): 217-235.

________. "The Finnish Organization of Canada, the 'Language Barrier', and the Assimilation Process." Canadian Ethnic Studies 9 (1977): 105-116.




CANADIAN FRENCH

Allen, James P. "Franco-Americans in Maine: A Geographical Perspective." Acadiensis 4 (1974): 32-66.

________. "Migration Fields of French Canadian Immigrants to Southern Maine." Geographical Review 62 (1972): 366-383.

Au, Dennis M. and Brode, Joanna. "The Lingering Shadow of New France: The French- Canadian Community of Monroe County, Michigan." In Michigan Folklife Reader, eds. C. Kurt Dewhurst and Yvonne R. Lockwood, 321-345. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1987.

Barrett, F. A. "The Relative Decline of the French Language in Canada." Geography 60 (1975): 125-129.

Burghardt, A. F. "Quebec Separatism and the Future of Canada." In Geographical Approaches to Canadian Problems, ed. L. Gentilcore, 229-235. Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Cartwright, Donald G. "Changes in the Patterns of Contact between Anglophones and Francophones in Quebec." GeoJournal 8 (1984): 109-122.

Cartwright, Donald G. and Williams, Colin H. "Bilingual Districts as an Instrument in Canadian Language Policy." Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 7 (1982): 474-493.

Clark, Andrew H. Acadia: The Geography of Early Nova Scotia. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.

Ennals, Peter. "Acadians in Maritime Canada." In To Build in a New Land: Ethnic Landscapes in North America, ed. Allen G. Noble, 29-43. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Gentilcore, R. Louis. "Vincennes and French Settlement in the Old Northwest." Annals of the Association of American Geographers 47 (1957): 285-297.

Harris, Richard Cole. "France in North America." In North America: The Historical Geography of a Changing Continent, ed. Robert D. Mitchell and Paul A. Groves, 65-92. Totawa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield, 1987.

________. "French Landscapes in North America." In The Making of the American Landscape, ed. Michael P. Conzen, 63-79. Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

________. The Seigneurial System in Early Canada: A Geographical Study. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1966.

Johnson, Hildegard Binder. "French Canada and the Ohio Country: A Study in Early Spatial Relationship." Canadian Geographer 12 (1958): 1-10.

Konrad, V. "Against the Tide: French Barn Building Traditions in the St. John Valley of Maine." American Review of Canadian Studies 12 (1982): 22-36.

Laponce, . "The French Language in Canada: Tensions between Geography and Politics." Political Geography Quarterly 3 (1984): 91-104.

McArthur, N., and Garland, M. E. "The Spread and Migration of French Canadians." Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geographie 52 (1961): 141-147.

McQuillan, D. Aidan. "The Creation and Survival of French-Canadian Communities in the American Upper Midwest during the 19th Century." Cahiers de Géographie du Québec 23 (1979): 53-72.

Sanguin, A. L. "The Quebec Question and the Political Geography of Canada." GeoJournal 8 (1984): 99-107.

Williams, . "Ethnic Perception of Acadia." Cahiers de Géographie du Québec 21 (1977): 243-268.


| Atlases | American Indians | Midland Subculture | Lower Southern Subculture | New England Subculture |
| Mormons | African Americans | Ethnic and Racial Mixtures | Hispanic Americans | German Americans |
| German Anabaptist Groups | Dutch Americans | Scandinavian Americans | Finnish Americans |
| Canadian French | Louisiana/Mississippi Valley French | Irish and Scotch-Irish Americans |
| Slavic Americans | Italian Americans | Jewish Americans | Asian Americans |
| Comparative and Cross-Cultural Studies | Settlement Morphology | Religion | Language |
| Agriculture | Folk Architecture | Politics | Music | Culture Regions and Boundaries |

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Created by JTK. Last revised January 5, 1998.