Valparaiso University: Stories

Stained Glass Emphasizes More Than Design at the University


John Nevergall - 08

Valparaiso University’s tradition of great art is not limited to a single medium. Just as the music of Bach fills the Duesenberg Recital Hall and the words of Shakespeare roll through the University Theatre, so too the works of Sloan, Adams and O’Keefe are proudly displayed in the Brauer Museum. However, perhaps the most striking art on campus will not be found in the University Center for the Arts, but instead in academic buildings and residence halls. It should come as no surprise that, for a school rich in Christian tradition, stained glass holds a prominent place in nine buildings on campus—adorning chapels, offices, lounges and even the student union.

A Complex Iconography

The art of staining glass is not a new one. In fact, the most common disagreement concerning the beginnings of stained glass center on disputing the identity of the original artists: either Phoenicians or ancient Egyptians. Regardless of who the true innovators were, this early glass was “opaque and very precious.” The use of stained glass in a liturgical setting can trace its earliest known roots to Augsburg Cathedral in Germany. This cathedral is home to the five oldest stained glass windows in the world. “These five windows show fired glass painting which utilizes line and tonal shading and they are made of bright, varied colors of glass.” From this beginning, church glass began to resemble the art we know it as today. However, the Middle Ages would be the time when stained glass would enjoy widespread growth.

As a time when pilgrims would cover great distances to holy sites, the Middle Ages would also serve as a time for stained glass to become more than it had ever been before. One innovator, Abbot Suger of Saint-Denis (outside of Paris), “was guided by a philosophy including the mysticism of light,” which, “compelled him to enlarge the windows and beautify them with colored glass.” This colored glass would begin to be used to depict “a complex iconography,” not simply to refract light in aesthetically pleasing tones.

Around the time of the Protestant Reformation, however, the creation and implementation of stained glass began to decline. Many churches were moving towards a more simplistic, unobtrusive worship setting. Eliminating stained glass from houses of worship was one tool to accomplish this task. Because of this, stained glass became relatively unknown until the 19th Century, when a revival of sorts began all throughout Europe. Many artists used stained glass as a means to making a name for themselves before venturing into other art forms. Stained glass was, once again, becoming a part of the social fabric around the world.

The 20th Century brought back an old idea to the world of stained glass. Many new buildings were beginning to use stained glass as liturgical art – the way it had been used in the Middle Ages.

The influential cathedrals (of the 20th Century) with traditional architecture such as Grace Cathedral in San Francisco and the Washington National Cathedral began requesting contemporary designs. Stained glass, like the other arts, was welcomed in the church in new forms. There was an increase of Christian symbols as subjects. These recalled early Christians hiding in the catacombs. Congregations were supposed to be informed enough to interpret these symbols.

The same can be said about many of the windows on the campus of Valparaiso University. Symbols depicting historical figures, sacred icons, bible stories and even the joys of college life can be found within the stained glass of Valparaiso University.

A Campus of Art

While the Chapel of the Resurrection is home to perhaps the most recognizable stained glass windows on the campus of Valparaiso University, the school hosts many other works of glass art beyond the walls of the chapel. Sophia Heidbrink Hall, located on Union Street across from the Athletics-Recreation Center is the current home of the Department of Social Work. It has not, however, always served in this capacity. When the building was built in 1965, it was named the Guild Center for Admissions. As the name suggests, this building was not an academic space, but the welcome building for prospective students. The stained glass, which was commissioned by the Guild, was placed in an exterior door on the southeast corner of the building. Officially, the window was given in memory of Hedwig L. Taube, a past-president of the Guild. At the time, this door was the access to the meeting room for the University Board of Directors. Eventually the Office of Admission vacated the Guild Center; and, in 1988, President Alan Harre oversaw the renaming of the building – in honor of Sophia Heidbrink, the executive assistant to Dr. O.P. Kretzmann and a leader in the Valparaiso University Guild. Today the door where the Taube Memorial window is located is no longer used.

Dedicated in June of 2006, the home of Valparaiso University Facilities Management is the home of a once-forgotten stained glass window. This window was originally placed in the chapel for the Dau and Kreinheder residence halls. When Dau and Kreinheder were razed in 1993, the window was kept, placed in storage on campus. After thirteen years of staying in the shadows of many different garages, the window was refurbished and placed in its new home. Rev. Joseph Cunningham, the Dean of the Chapel of the Resurrection, has been researching the meaning behind the symbols in this window.

Loke Hall, the home of the Office of Institutional Advancement, is the site of two stained glass windows. Both windows, while unique, pay homage to Valparaiso University through the symbols that they depict. The first window was given to the university by Karl and Luetta Henrichs. Mr. Henrichs was, at one time, the director of the Department of Public and Alumni Affairs (now the OIA). This window, which features at its center the seal of the university, was given in tribute to the dedicated work done by many to make Valparaiso University what it is today. The second window was given in memory of Anne Brauer Fenske. It symbolizes the many aspects of life happening at Valparaiso University. Every part of a student’s experience can be found here, including faith, scholarship, sports and other recreational activities and the arts. Mel Doering, University Archivist, believes that both of these windows were, at one time, housed in Graland Hall. Their move occurred when Graland was razed and the Department of Public and Alumni Affairs moved into Loke Hall.

The Linwood House, located on the southern edge of campus, used to be the president’s home. Now it is the home of the Lily Fellows Program and also the site of what could be considered rather inconsequential stained glass. In a rear office of the Linwood House, Dr. Kretzmann’s former office in fact, there is a small section of stained glass. Found on two walls, the stained glass is not part of an artistic application, but instead simply used to break up the monotony of four redbrick walls. According to Dr. Gretchen Buggeln, architectural historian and Associate Professor of Humanities and American Studies in Christ College, the stained glass was most likely designed by the architect of the building, Charles Stade. Mr. Stade was also the architect for the Chapel of the Resurrection. On one wall, the glass is cut into rectangles the same size as the surrounding bricks, and is inserted amongst the brick of one wall. Another small collection of stained glass, found on a wall opposite of the glass previously described, is set into a windowpane and resembles much more a classical stained glass window.

Attached to the south side of Guild and Memorial residence halls is a chapel, which is common to the two halls. In this chapel there are eight small stained glass windows. These windows each present a triptych of well-known bible characters and stories. Included in the windows are Saints Matthew, Mark, Luke and John as well as the prophets Ezekiel, Daniel, Jeremiah and Isaiah. Also, stories such as the nativity and resurrection along with the parables of the Good Shepherd, the prodigal son and the lost coin find their way into these windows.

The Art of Christian Vocation

While relatively little is known about the windows that have already been examined, the Chapel of the Resurrection and the Kade-Duesenberg German Cultural Center house stained glass windows whose histories have been well-documented. Dedicated on September 23, 2000, the Kade-Duesenberg German Cultural Center on the campus of Valparaiso University has become more than just another residence hall. While there are thirteen students and one resident assistant who live there each academic year, the KDGCC has also become a social and academic center for the campus. Weekly coffee hours and other “open house” events help to bring the study of German language off of campus and in touch with the surrounding community. School-age students are also given language lessons in the KDGCC. However, no matter who you are or what your reason is for visiting, everyone who enters the KDGCC is welcomed by two of the most recognizable icons of VU’s shared German and Lutheran heritage.

On the south wall of the main lobby of the KDGCC visitors will find a large, inviting fireplace flanked on either side by impressive stained glass windows. These windows show tribute to two men of historical significance to the development of both the Lutheran church and German culture. Johann Sebastian Bach can be found on the left side of the fireplace, with Martin Luther appearing on the right. Different attributes surround each of the two gentlemen. These attributes, like those of well-known saints, are meant to recall the viewer to the life and accomplishments of the people they are accompanying.

The story of the Luther window begins nearly 50 years before the dedication of the KDGCC, and over 1,200 miles away—in Vero Beach, Florida. In 1956, an artist named Conrad Pickel created a stained glass window for the main office of Lutheran Brotherhood, located in Minneapolis, MN. This window featured, at its center, Martin Luther posting his 95 Theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany. Surrounding the center are many locations, symbols and scenarios of Luther’s 16th Century Protestant Reformation—attributes, like those in the KDGCC window. The similarities between the windows are not coincidental. Sometime after the installation of Mr. Pickel’s window in the Lutheran Brotherhood building, Phyllis Duesenberg, a 1954 graduate of Valparaiso University, encountered the window. Known as the “Reformation Window”, Conrad Pickel’s presentation of Luther’s life and accomplishments had a lasting effect on Mrs. Duesenberg. Years later, when Mrs. Duesenberg and her husband Richard (’51, JD ’53) were involved in the development of the KDGCC, she requested that the art for the Luther window be derived from Conrad Pickel’s 1956 Reformation Window. After consulting Mr. Pickel, design and construction began on this new Luther window.

Per Mrs. Duesenberg’s wishes, the Martin Luther window in the KDGCC features the famous 1517 posting of the 95 Theses. Beyond this recognizable pose, Luther is adorned with several other attributes, all of which also appear in some form in Conrad Pickel’s “Reformation Window”. Starting in the upper-left of the window and working clockwise, the window displays the Schlosskirche or Castle Church. This was one of two churches in the town of Wittenberg, Germany—the other was the more centrally located Mariankirche, St. Mary’s Church. The Castle Church was the place of worship for the intellectuals in Wittenberg, including many of Luther’s colleagues from the University, making it the prime location for posting his list of grievances against Roman Catholic Church. Below the image of the Scholsskirche is the Luther Rose. This emblem was created by Luther himself and used on much of his correspondence during the Reformation.

Along the bottom of the window is the name of the subject “Martin Luther” and the dates of his life, “1483-1546”. Above the name and to the left of the subject is a book and pen. This attribute reminds viewers of Luther’s work of translating the bible from Latin into German, thus making scripture available for all people and not just the clergy. Luther was able to complete the translation in only eleven weeks, while hiding from the Roman Catholic Church in the castle Wartburg, located just outside the city of Eisenach. Above the book and pen is a harp surrounded by the text “Ein Feste Burg ist unser Gott”. This harp alludes to Luther’s love for music in worship and his personal work for the advancement of Christian Hymnody. The text translates to “A Mighty Fortress is our God,” the title and first line of one of Luther’s most famous hymns.

At the top of the window is a rising dove, a symbol of Pentecost, which is just above the following text: von der Freiheit Eines Christenmenschen. This translates to “on the Freedom of a Christian”—the title of a reformation tract penned by Luther in November of 1520. “The Freedom of a Christian” was the third of three reformation tracts that Luther wrote early in his career as a reformer, the other two being “Address to the German Nobility” and “The Babylonian Captivity of the Church.” While the first two works were aimed at attacking specific practices of the Papacy, “The Freedom of a Christian” is considered more conciliatory in nature—focusing on an evangelical theology for living a Christian life. This theology is based in Luther’s “both, and” pattern of argument. Just as Christians are both sinner and saint, Luther opines that Christians are both free and in bondage. To this end, Luther states, “A Christian is perfectly free, lord of all, subject to none.” He continues, “A Christian is a perfect and dutiful servant of all, subject to all.” Essentially, Luther is stating that Christians are free from sin, and this makes them free to be perfectly obedient to Christ.

Opposite of the Luther window is a window featuring 18th Century composer Johann Sebastian Bach. The attributes around J.S. Bach depict his life as a musician who served sacred and secular audiences alike. Starting in the upper left of the window you will see a representation of the Thomaskirche, or St. Thomas Church. This church, located in Leipzig, Germany, is the place where many of his most well known works were premiered. Adjacent to the Thomaskirche the text “Soli Deo Gloria” is placed on the window. This Latin phrase translates to “Only for the glory of GOD”—and is a sentiment linked to the work and achievements of J.S. Bach. Below the text is the image of an organ, Bach’s instrument of choice. Directly underneath the organ is the seal of the composer, which presents his initials “JSB” in correct alignment and their mirror image.

Similar to the Luther window, the bottom of the Bach window displays his full name, “Johann Sebastian Bach” and the years of his life, “1685-1750”. While each of the attributes described thus far are each important images of Bach’s life, the remaining attribute may be the most meaningful. In the center of the window, the composer is holding a pen and a piece of manuscript paper. Upon closer examination, viewers will notice that the manuscript Bach is holding is unfinished. The manuscript begins with the following: C, E-flat, G, A-flat, B (natural), G, F-sharp, F-natural. This phrase is what historians and, in fact, Bach himself called the Royal Theme, and it comes from a work in thirteen parts called “das Musikalisches Opfer” or “A Musical Offering” (BWV 1079). This piece, written in 1747, is one of Bach’s later works. The story surrounding the “Musical Offering” is quite an interesting one—involving a new instrument, a royal challenge and a gift from “old Bach” himself.

The most concise report of how the “Musical Offering” came to be can be found in the May 11, 1747 issue of Spenersche Zeitung, a contemporary Berlin newspaper. Translated, the story is as follows:

We hear from Potsdam that last Sunday [May 7] the famous Capellmeiser from Leipzig, Herr Bach, arrived with the intention of hearing the excellent Royal music at that place. In the evening, at about the time when the regular chamber music in the Royal apartments usually begins, His Majesty was informed that Capellmeister Bach had arrived at Potsdam and was waiting in His Majesty’s antechamber for His Majesty’s most gracious permission to listen to the music. His August Self immediately gave orders that Bach be admitted, and went, at his entrance, to the so-called “forte and piano”, condescending also to play, in person and without any preparation, a theme to be executed by Capellmeister Bach in a fugue. This was done so happily by the aforementioned Capellmeister that not only His Majesty was pleased to show his satisfaction thereat, but also all those present were seized with astonishment. Herr Bach has found the subject propounded to him so exceedingly beautiful that he intends to set it down on paper in a regular fugue and have it engraved in copper. On Monday, the famous man was heard on the organ in the Church of the Holy Ghost at Potsdam and earned general acclaim from the auditors attending in great number. In the evening, His Majesty charged him again with the execution of a fugue, in six parts, which he accomplished just as skillfully as on the previous occasion, to the pleasure of His Majesty and to the general admiration.

This latter charge from King Frederick the Great, for an improvised fugue in six parts, is the basis for the music found in the hands of the composer in the KDGCC. The Royal Theme was the foundation for this piece, which became a six-part ricercar. The use of the ricercar form, instead of the more contemporary fugue, alludes to Bach’s musical prowess—and his sense of humor. A ricercar is the musical predecessor to the more modern fugue. Literally meaning “to seek”, the ricercar was a form used to test a new instrument and try out its tuning. Bach’s trip to Potsdam would have been one of his first experiences with a “forte and piano”, known today simply as the piano, and, therefore, it makes sense for him to use the ricercar to try out this newest advance in instrumental technology. Upon returning to Leipzig, Bach had his improvised ricercari transcribed and he added ten accompanying cannons, all based upon the King’s Royal Theme. When the whole work was completed, he presented it as a gift to Frederick the Great. The final title Bach gave his Musical Offering was “Regis Iussu Cantio Et Reliqua Canonica Arte Resoluta”, translated, “At the King’s Command, the Song and the Remainder Resolved with Canonic Art.” However, the original Latin title forms a curious acrostic for the very nature of the piece: RICERCAR.

This piece was chosen for two reasons in particular: its musical and vocational connection to J.S. Bach. According to Dr. Joseph Bognar, Assistant Professor of Music at Valparaiso University and consultant for the Bach Window, the six-voice ricercar was chosen for the window because it displays “the height of [Bach’s] contrapuntal art.” The creation of a six-part counterpoint was (and still is) a monumental task for even the most capable of composers. For Bach, his ability to do so on the spot, as the story goes, is truly remarkable.

Beyond its musical importance, the six-voice ricercar from “A Musical Offering” was chosen because of its vocational symbolism, according to Dr. Bognar. This piece was one Bach’s works that was written for a wholly secular purpose. A known church musician, Bach gave his “Musical Offering” to the Prussian king, a decidedly secular recipient. Such a commission was (and still is) the life of a church musician—writing music not only for the church, but for a wider audience as well.

Luther and Bach were originally intended to be two of four total windows in the KDGCC, designed to flank the same fireplace on the second floor of the KDGCC. The additional subjects who were not realized in stained glass were Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Albrecht Dürer. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German author, philosopher and statesman who lived from 1749-1832. Among his best known written works are The Sorrows of Young Werther and the poetic drama Faust. Dürer, a native of Nürnberg, is widely considered Germany’s greatest Renaissance artist. Born in 1472, Dürer was known for his religious works as well his numerous portraits.

As mentioned earlier, the windows were given to the university by Richard (’51, JD ’53) and Phyllis (Buehner ’54) Duesenberg. The Oakbrook-Esser Studios of Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, designed the windows. The artist in charge of the KDGCC windows was Johann Minten. Minten was trained by stained glass makers in Germany from a very young age. As a Dutch citizen, Minten was able to avoid military service during his youth and, instead, concentrate on perfecting his craft. His German employers, while working with the then Esser Studios of Milwaukee, WI, sent Minten to America to continue his work. At the age of 71, Minten was named the artist who would create the Bach and Luther windows for the KDGCC.

In January of 2000, nine months prior to the dedication of the KDGCC, members of the Valparaiso University community approached the Oakbrook-Esser Studios about creating the stained glass for the house. Over the next nine months, the stained glass came to life by way of an intense process of development.

According to Dondi Griffin, the Business Manager of Oakbrook-Esser Studios, there are about nine major steps in the process of creating stained glass windows like the ones made for the KDGCC. Beginning with the sketches and watercolor renditions, the stained glass windows go under many design changes. These renditions were done in black and white and in color. Once the patron and artist agree on a design, a full-size pattern is made. Glass is then cut to fit on the pattern and paint is applied to the glass. The glass for the KDGCC was imported from Europe and hand-painted. The painting process, called “tracing”, is usually done in shades of black and brown—many times the color of a window comes from the glass used and not the paint. The purpose of painting, according to Griffin, is to “add shading and tone” to the window.

After the window has been painted, it is fired to seal the paint and finish the glass. Then the glass is placed into a wax model of the window to check the integrity of the art before finalizing the window. After the wax-and-glass model is approved, the glass is removed from the wax and is glazed. This is process by which the glass is placed into its lead came. The glass is then cemented into place and the window is installed. The windows in the KDGCC created special challenges for the artists because of the extreme detail that went into each figure and attribute that appeared in each window. In fact, Ms. Griffin stated that these windows were “probably the most detailed windows” she had encountered during her tenure at Oakbrook-Esser.

The Chapel of the Resurrection

There are four large stained glass windows in the Chapel of the Resurrection, along with a smaller glass and concrete screen, which is located in the Gloria Christi Chapel. The three chancel windows, given by Mr. and Mrs. Alfred C. Munderloh of Detroit, Michigan, are among the most recognizable symbols of Valparaiso University. These windows are each 85-feet-tall by 22-feet-wide. At the time of installation, this was the largest stained glass project in the United States. The windows were not all installed or dedicated at the same time. The center window was dedicated on Sunday, February 5, 1961 and the two flanking windows were dedicated nearly four years later – on Sunday, January 10, 1965. The lone window in the western wall of the chapel was given by Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Meier. This window was dedicated on September 27, 1959, the same day that the chapel was dedicated.

The artist for each of these four windows was Mr. Peter Dohmen of Saint Paul, Minnesota. Mr. Dohmen worked closely with Dr. A. R. Kretzmann, the liturgical consultant of the Chapel of the Resurrection to create windows that have since been referred to as “sermons in color.” The Meier Window is designed to present “music and its place in the life of the Christian.” The art of this window depicts both the light-hearted and austere nature of art, specifically music, in a Christian life. Many instruments also find their way into the window, the entire work set against, “a striking red motif, the symbol of Christ’s saving redemption and of our personal salvation.” The Meier Window contains 3,400 pieces of stained glass.

The Munderloh Windows are, without a doubt, the crown jewels of the University. Each window has its own theme, from which each window tells its story. The window on the far right is the Creation Window. Like each of the Munderloh windows, this window is read clockwise, starting in the upper-right corner and continuing through each of the ten divisions of the window. The first division bears the marks of the planets, followed by the creating hands of God in the second division. The next divisions feature well-known Old Testament stories, from Adam and Eve, to the Ten Commandments and symbols of the ancient kings. This first window concludes with images of peace, most specifically with a dove, which soars more than 80 feet above the chancel.

The center window, the Redemption Window, tells the stories of the New Testament. The first division of this window features the rising sun of a new day in Christ. A Messianic Rose, along with symbols of the Lion of the tribe of Judah and the Stem of Jesse, all come together to describe the prophetic fulfillment that is Jesus Christ – the word made flesh. The divisions that follow this depict the well-known stories of the New Testament, including Christmas, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday and Easter. The final divisions of the center window look forward to Christ’s return to creation. The book with seven seals along with trumpets sounding to the Four Corners of the earth are displayed here. This window is concluded with the Chi-Rho, a symbol for Christ and his eternal presence.

Some text also appears interspersed with the images of the Redemption Window. In the center of the window, the mark “IC-XC-NIKA” appears. This early text, which translates to “Jesus Christ, the Conqueror” comes from an Ephesian tomb from the third century, AD. Also appearing in the center of this window is the Latin “In Luce Tua, Videmus Lucem.” This text, from the 36th Psalm, is not only fitting text for a window that captures the light of each sunrise, but is also the motto for Valparaiso University.

The third Munderloh Window is the Sanctification Window. The initial divisions of this window show symbols of the early church: scrolls (the Holy Scripture) and a dove (Pentecost) are among these symbols. The next division includes images of Christian martyrdom and moves into images of contemporary Christian life. Music, nations, scientific advances and world mission all appear in the images of this window. The elements of the Eucharist along with other symbols of priestly office also are present here. This final window concludes with Luther’s coat of arms and the torch of this university. Both of these symbols are excellent symbols of Valparaiso University – a university under the cross, whose flame of faith continually lights the lamp of learning.

Though the preceding information is readily available, I had to do some exploring to discover the artistic background of the Munderloh windows. The man credited as the designer of the Munderloh and Meier windows is Mr. Peter Dohmen, a German immigrant who came to the United States when his studio in Cologne, Germany was destroyed by Allied bombing raids during World War II. Mr. Dohmen settled in Saint Paul, Minnesota and opened a new studio there. In the summer of 1961, after completing many extensive works in the U.S. (including the center Munderloh window and Meier window at Valparaiso University), Mr. Dohmen hosted another German immigrant as an apprentice. This gentleman’s name was Dieterich Spahn.

I was fortunate enough to speak with Mr. Spahn, who is still working out of his Minnetonka, Minnesota studio. Mr. Spahn was able to grant some insight into the process behind making the Munderloh windows. Mr. Spahn came to America to join Mr. Dohmen on the two flanking Munderloh windows. The center window and the Meier window had been dedicated six months and twenty-two months prior to his arrival in Minnesota, respectively. Mr. Spahn stated that the creation of the Munderloh windows was quite a mammoth task, because Peter would create full-size, full-color paintings of his windows prior to their construction, a practice that, for a project of that size, was rather impractical. Mr. Spahn helped with the creation of these cartoons and spent many hours in Peter’s studio painting the icons of creation and sanctification. Mr. Spahn described the opportunity to join Peter Dohmen in creating these massive windows as “fun…interesting” and “a blessing in disguise,” because the daunting task of presented by the Munderloh Windows better prepared him for every other commission he would face in the years to come.

The Munderloh and Meier windows are not the only stained glass in the Chapel of the Resurrection. In the Gloria Christi Chapel, the lower chapel that is situated directly underneath the high altar of the main chapel, there is a divider made of concrete and chunks of stained glass. According to a University press release from 1963, the divider depicts “symbols of the Apostles and Means of Grace.” This divider was given as a memorial to former VU president, Dr. O.C. Kreinheder, who served this university from 1930 to 1939. The job of designing this set of stained glass for the chapel did not, however, go to Peter Dohmen. A gentleman named Felix Senger, an artist from the Conrad Schmitt Studios of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is credited with the art for this divider.

The Conrad Schmitt Studios was also involved with another stained glass project at Valparaiso University, which never came to fruition. In 1968, representatives from the Conrad Schmitt Studios, along with several other stained glass makers, met at VU to discuss two additional chancel windows to be installed on either side of the existing Munderloh windows. While the project was never pursued, a part of the bidding process still remains at VU—a five-foot-tall box that is currently housed in the University Archives. This box is a presentation piece, with a scale, color-on-paper replica of a window that would fit the space of the Munderloh windows. This box bears the following label:

Valparaiso University Memorial Chapel

Conrad Schmitt Studios

Bernard O.

The name at the bottom, “Bernard O.,” is the name of the director of the Conrad Schmitt Studios at the time of the project. Bernard O. Gruenke had been an artist and decorator for the Conrad Schmitt Studios since 1936 and, it seems, was the person bidding for the VU Chapel job. Unfortunately, little else is known about these additional windows beyond a few memoranda provided by the Conrad Schmitt Studios.

Conclusion

The campus of Valparaiso University is home to many beautiful works of stained glass art. These works are all around and each recall some part of the university’s heritage, history and mission. Remembering each of these windows is a fitting way to pay tribute to Valparaiso University, as it celebrates 150 years of educating students in a community under the cross.

Acknowledgements and Works Cited

The following individuals and institutions graciously contributed to this research project:

•Prof. Joseph Bognar, Associate Professor of Music, Valparaiso University

•Prof. Gretchen Buggeln, Associate Professor of Humanities and American Studies, Valparaiso Univ.

•Rev. Joseph Cunningham, Dean of the Chapel of the Resurrection, Valparaiso University

•Prof. Sara DeMaris, Professor of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Valparaiso University

•Mel Doering, Archivist, Valparaiso University

•Heidi Emery, Associate, The Conrad Schmitt Studios of New Berlin, Wisconsin

•Dondi Griffin, Business Manager, Oakbrook-Esser Studios of Oconomowoc, Wisconsin

•Katei Gross, Executive Director, Stained Glass Association of America

•Ann Harms, Research Asst. to the VP for Admission, Financial Aid and Marketing, Valparaiso Univ.

•Jason Langworthy, Research Assistant to the Dean of the Chapel, Valparaiso University

•Rev. David Nevergall, Pastor, Grace Lutheran Church, Elmore, Ohio

•Fred Plant, Executive Director of Facilities Management, Valparaiso University

•Tony Polotto, Senior Project Manager for the Office of the Univ. Architect, University of Notre Dame

•Dieterich Spahn, Artist

•The Valparaiso University Guild

David, Hans T. J.S. Bach’s Musical Offering: History, Interpretation, and Analysis. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc. 1945. pp. 3-4.

Harms, Ann. “Stained Glass Window Project, Preliminary Research.” Compiled for the Vice President of Admission, Financial Aid and Marketing at Valparaiso University. 2006.

“History of Stained Glass.” From www.stainedglass.org, the website of the Stained Glass Association of America. Accessed 6/9/2006.

Luther, Martin. Grignon, R.S., trans. On the Freedom of a Christian. “The Harvard Classics, Vol. 36. New York: P. F. Collier and Son. 1910. p. 353.

“Manual for Student Guides”. Printed by Valparaiso University. 1961.